Land Cover Map 1990

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Product Description:

The Land Cover Map of Great Britain 1990 (LCM1990) was the first digital land cover map for Great Britain derived from satellite imagery, and was the first complete GB land cover map to be produced since the 1960’s.  The data was produced using supervised maximum likelihood classifications of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper data, where each pixel is assigned to a land cover class based on the spectral characteristics in the original multi-band satellite image.  The raster dataset was produced at 25m pixel resolution, as this was determined to give the most likely land cover class for each pixel, based on the input sensor parameters.  Since produced, LCM1990 has been licenced by academic, policy-related and commercial interests for a huge range of uses from studies of the atmosphere and climate, to marine and coastal protection, agriculture, landscape planning and urban studies.

A two tier, hierarchal land cover classification system was devised for the LCM1990 product.  The original classification was undertaken with 25 land cover classes – consisting of sea and inland water, beaches and bare ground, developed and arable land, and 18 types of semi-natural vegetation.  Recognising that there are sometimes inconsistencies in the mapping of certain rarer land cover types, these 25 types were then grouped into an aggregated set of 17 ‘key’ land cover types to produce more generalised data, and this provides an alternate land cover classification scheme within the 1km data if required.

 

 Level 1

 Aggregate classes (x17)

 Level 2

 Full classes (x25)

 Vector product  Y
 Raster, 25m  Y  Y

 

Datasets Available:

The LCM1990 product is provided in a range of different spatial and thematic resolutions, in order to support a wide range of potential applications:

 

  • LCM1990 raster 25m resolution

This is the ‘standard’ full resolution dataset.  There is one single raster layer of data, with each 25m x 25m pixel being assigned to one of 25 land cover classes.

 

  • LCM1990 raster 1km resolution ‘Summary Products’

Derived from the 25m data, more generalised 1km resolution datasets are also available.  The aggregation from 25m to 1km was undertaken by two different methods:

 

  • Dominant Value Rasters

Similar to the 25m data, this dataset provides one single raster layer of data, with each 1km x 1km pixel being assigned to one land cover class.  The assignment is based on which class is most dominant within the 1km pixel extent, aggregated from the 1,600 (40×40) 25m pixels within each 1km pixel.  This data is available at two different thematic resolutions:

 

  • LCM1990 raster 1km, dominant cover for LCM1990 Aggregated (17) land cover classes (level 1)
  • LCM1990 raster 1km, dominant cover for LCM1990 Full (25) land cover classes (level 2)

 

  • Percentage Value Rasters

Since larger pixels are more likely to include a wider range of land cover types, this dataset provides separate raster layers for each of the land cover classes.  Within each layer, the pixel values represent the percentage of that 1km pixel designated as being of a particular land cover type.  For example, a 1km pixel is comprised of 1,600 25m pixels in the original data.  If 320 of these 1,600 pixels were of land cover type ‘marsh/rough grass’, then the layer for this class would have a value of 20 (%) for this 1km pixel.  This data is available at two different thematic resolutions:

 

  • LCM1990 raster 1km, percentage cover for LCM1990 Aggregated (17) land cover classes (level 1)
  • LCM1990 raster 1km, percentage cover for LCM1990 Full (25) land cover classes (level 2)

 

 

Summary of LCM1990 datasets available:

 

 Spatial Resolution

 (Cell size)

 Thematic Resolution

 (Land cover classes)

 Data Layers  Value Type  Data Types
 25m  25  1  Dominant  Raster grid, coverage
 1km  25  1  Dominant  Raster grid, coverage
 1km  17  1  Dominant  Raster grid, coverage
 1km  25  25  Percentage  Raster grid, coverage
 1km  17  17  Percentage  Raster grid, coverage

 

Dataset Thumbnail:

 

Dataset Specification:

Product Name

Land Cover Map of Great Britain 1990 (LCM1990)

Data Provider

Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH)

Scale

Minimum mappable unit of 0.5ha, 25m or 1km pixel resolution

Coverage

Great Britain (complete)

Data Structure

Raster grid, coverage

Format(s)

GeoTIFF

Uses

Licencing

CEH Licence

Update Frequency

 

Dataset Resources:

LCM1990 Product site
LCM1990 Land cover classes
LCM1990 25m metadata
LCM1990 1km metadata
LCM1990 Sample Data (zip)
LCM1990 Dataset Documentation (pdf)